Foot Balance

Hoof imbalance is one of the most common problems associated with lameness in a horse’s foot. It can be attributed to a variety of causes including conformation, the type of shoes fitted and how regularly the horse is shod.

Ideally the horse’s foot should strike the ground as a unit, with the entire weight-bearing surface hitting the ground together. In the case of side-to-side imbalance (lateral-medial imbalance) the outside toe strikes the ground before the heel, with the inside heel landing first. This leads to uneven forces across the hoof and uneven loading of the lower limb joints.

Many horses tolerate a large degree of foot balance, remain sound and are able to compete to a high level. Others are more sensitive, with a minimal discrepancy adversely affecting performance.

X-rays are a tool that we are using more and more in conjunction with farriers to evaluate & correct foot balance….. Essentially a side to side (Lateromedial – side view) and front to back (Dorsopalmar – front/back view) x-ray is taken of each foot to show the position of the pedal bone and the rest of the bony column in relation to the external hoof wall. These images can then be used by the farrier to trim to optimise foot conformation and correct any underlying imbalance. Severe imbalance is often evident without an x-ray but mild to moderate imbalance can be present in a “normal” looking foot.

Foot balance x-rays are particularly useful in horses with poor foot shape or sensitive feet as well as those suffering from foot related lameness. Many elite sports horses have this procedure on a regular basis to pre-empt any problems. The stage of the shoeing cycle must be considered when interpreting the images, it is unreasonable to expect the feet to look as good when they are due for re-shoeing as when they are freshly shod.

Foot balance x-rays can be performed at the clinic or on your yard providing there is an area of level concrete under cover and mains electricity.

Worming

Small Redworms (Cyathostomes)

These are the most common worms in horses and they are infected from pasture contaminated by eggs passed out in faeces of infected horses. Although these worms are more prevalent in the summer they can be present all year round.

The eggs can develop into adults in the gut within 5 weeks, they can either attach to the gut wall or be absorbed into it and reduce the ability of the gut to absorb nutrients leading to weight loss, diarrhoea and general ill thrift. These worms can also encyst into the gut wall as larvae and delay their development to adults.  Emergence of these encysted larvae can cause major gut damage leading to severe diarrhoea, weight loss, colic and even death.

The adult stages are readily detected by faecal worm egg counts (WEC) and it is sensible to worm your horse based on the results of this. The encysted larvae will not be shown up by WECs so it is important to treat for these once a year (usually in the autumn).

You can reduce pasture contamination by avoiding overgrazing/overstocking of pasture, regular poo picking and cross grazing with sheep/cattle.

Encysted Small Redworm –  Owners Leaflet

Tapeworms (Anoplocephala spp.)

These worms tend to attach to the gut walls and can interfere with gut motility and cause irritation, they are a major cause of colic (research suggests up to 20% of spasmodic colic can be attributed to tapeworms). It is spread by an intermediate host (the forage mite) and infections occur all year round. Infection can be detected via a blood or saliva test but will not be shown on a WEC. Equisal Saliva test kits are available from Milbourn Equine which you can do yourself and your vet will analyse the results and advise you.

Pinworms

Pinworms are becoming increasingly common due to their location at the end of the digestive tract as ‘newer’ wormers tend to be absorbed before they reach this point. The female lays eggs around the anus and this can lead to perineal irritation and tail rubbing. They are generally not harmful and are more of a nuisance/ irritant to the horse. The adults are readily killed with a double dose of a ‘pyrantel’ based wormer but it is important to also disinfect any area the horse has rubbed on (fences/haynets/rugs etc)as otherwise the horse can become re-infected by ingesting the eggs.

Bots

Bots are actually flies that have part of their lifecycle within the horse. Eggs are laid on the hair by a fly, they are consumed by the horse and migrate to the stomach where they attach and can cause some inflammation/ulceration before being passed out in the dung. However they are not a major health concern unless present in very large quantities.

Lungworms 

Lungworms are very rare in horses unless they are immune-compromised or are grazing alongside donkeys who are relatively commonly infected.

Large Redworms

Large redworms migrate to the blood vessels causing damage to major organs, historically they caused very serious illness but due to regular use of wormers nowadays they are less of a concern.

It is our advice to worm once yearly with a wormer containing moxidectin that kills encysted redworm larvae (ie Equest Pramox) which do not show up on worm egg counts.

In between times we recommend worm egg counts are performed and only to worm if these show a high level of adult redworms. This avoids unnecessary worming, reduces the risks of worms becoming resistant to wormers and is likely to reduce your costs!

We offer a worming programme for an annual fee which provides worm egg counts throughout the year. Please note tapeworm testing is at an additional cost.

Alternatively join our Equine Healthcare Plan, to help you save money on tapeworm testing and other additional preventative healthcare costs.